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Quelle: RedHat Stack

Introducing Query Insights for Cloud Spanner: troubleshoot performance issues with pre-built dashboards

Today, application development teams are more agile and are shipping features faster than ever before. In addition to these rapid development cycles and the rise of microservices architectures, the end-to-end ownership of feature development (and performance monitoring) has moved to a shared responsibility model between advanced database administrators and full-stack developers. However, most developers don’t have the years of experience or the time needed to debug complex query performance issues and database administrators are now a scarce resource in most organizations. As a result, there is a dire need for tools for developers and DBAs alike to quickly diagnose performance issues. Introducing Query Insights for SpannerWe are delighted to announce the launch of Query Insights for Spanner,  a set of visualization tools that provide an easy way for developers and database administrators to quickly diagnose query performance issues on Spanner. Using Query Insights, users can now troubleshoot query performance in a self-serve way. We’ve designed Query Insights using familiar design patterns with world-class visualizations to provide an intuitive experience for anyone who is debugging issues with query performance on Spanner. Query Insights is available at no additional cost.By using out-of-the-box visual dashboards and graphs, developers can visualize aberrant behavior like peaks and troughs in various performance metrics over a time-series and quickly identify problematic queries. Time series data provides significant value to organizations because it enables them to analyze important real-time and historical metrics. Data is valuable only if it’s easy to comprehend;. that’s where being able to view intuitive dashboards becomes a force multiplier for organizations looking to expose their time series data across teams.Follow a visual journey with pre-built dashboardsWith Query Insights, developers can seamlessly move from detection of database performance issues to diagnosis of problematic queries using a single interface. Query Insights will help identify query performance issues easily with pre-built dashboards. The user could do this by following a simple journey where they can quickly confirm, identify and analyze query performance issues. Let’s walk through an example scenario. Understand database performanceThis journey will start by the user setting up an alert on Google Cloud Monitoring for CPU utilization going above a certain threshold. The alert could be configured in a way that if this threshold is crossed, the user will be notified with an email alert, with a link to the “Monitoring” dashboard.Once the user receives this alert, they would click on the link in the email, and navigate to the “Monitoring” dashboard. If they observe high CPU Utilization and high read latencies, the possible root cause could be expensive queries. A spike in CPU Utilization could be a strong signal that the system is using more compute than it usually would, due to an inefficient query.The next step is to identify which query might be the problem, this is where Query Insights comes in. The user can get to this tool by clicking on Query Insights in the left navigation of your Spanner Instance. Here, they can drill down into the CPU usage by query and observe that for a specific database, CPU Utilization (attributed to all queries) is spiking for a particular time window. This confirms that the CPU utilization is due to inefficient queries.Identifying a problematic queryThe user now observes the TopN (Top queries by CPU Utilization) query graph to see the TopN queries by CPU Utilization. From the graph, it is very easy to visualize and identify the top queries which could be causing the spike in CPU Utilization.In the above screenshot, we can see that the first query in the table is showing a clear spike at 10:33 PM consuming 48.81% of total CPU. This is  a clear indication that this query could be problematic, and the user should investigate further.Analyzing the query performanceOnce they have identified the problematic query, they can now drill down into this query shape to confirm, identify the root cause of the high CPU utilization. They can do this by clicking on the Fingerprint ID for the specific query from the topN table, and navigating to the Query Details page where they will be able to see a list of metrics (Latency, CPU Utilization, Execution count, Rows Scanned / Rows Returned) over a time series for that specific query.  In this example, we notice that the average number of rows scanned for this specific query are very high (~ 600k rows scanned to return ~ 12k rows), which could point to a poor query design, resulting in an inefficient query. We can also observe that latency is high (1.4s) for this query.Fixing the issueTo fix the problem in this scenario, the user could optimize this query by specifying a secondary index in the query using a FORCE_INDEX query hint to provide an index directive. This would provide more consistent performance, make the query more efficient, and lower CPU utilization for this query.In the screenshot below, you can see that after specifying the index in the query, the query performance dramatically increases in terms of CPU, rows scanned (54K vs 630k) and also in terms of query latency (536 ns vs 1.4 s).Unoptimized Query:Optimized Query:By following this simple visual journey, the user can easily detect, diagnose and debug inefficient queries on Spanner.Get started with Query Insights todayTo learn more about Query Insights, review the documentation here. Query Insights is enabled by default. In the Spanner console, you can click on Query Insights in the left navigation and start visualizing your query performance metrics! New to Spanner? Get started in minutes with a new database.Related ArticleImproved troubleshooting with Cloud Spanner introspection capabilitiesCloud-native database Spanner has new introspection capabilities to monitor database performance and optimize application efficiency.Read Article
Quelle: Google Cloud Platform

IP Masquerading and eBPF are now in GKE Autopilot

So you’re deploying Kubernetes and you’ve been ready-to-go with your containerized applications. But one problem you’ve faced is IP exhaustion across your diverse environments and your clusters need to talk to your on-prem clusters or hosts. Or maybe your workloads talk to a service that expects only RFC 1918 addresses for regulatory or compliance reasons. You can now translate your pod IPs to your node IPs on GKE Autopilot clusters with the latest networking features that are generally available:Our Egress NAT policy with IP masquerading for pod to node IP translation is now GA for GKE Autopilot, andOur advanced programmable datapath based on eBPF, Dataplane V2 (DPv2), with support for Network Policy & Logging is also now GA for GKE Autopilot.Egress NAT Policy for GKE AutopilotEgress NAT policy allows you to masquerade your pod IPs to the node IP addresses, enabling pods (typically in a separate network island) to communicate outside the cluster using the IP address of a node as the source IP. Some of our users have used special IPs (non-RFC 1918 addresses) for their pod ranges to expand their IP usage by leveraging Reserved or Class E IP space. A few use cases for wanting to masquerade the pod IPs to those of the nodes is for communication back to on-premise workloads for security or compliance reasons, or just for compatibility reasons. Previously, users were not able to configure IP masquerading due to managed namespace restrictions in GKE Autopilot. With the Egress NAT policy custom resource definition (CRD), we’ve enabled a user-facing API to allow you to configure IP masquerading on GKE Autopilot clusters. “We use GKE Autopilot because of its reduced operational overhead and potential cost reductions. The addition of IP masquerading via Egress NAT policy expands our use of Autopilot to include accessing on-premises data and systems.” —Joey Brown, Engineering Manager at American Family Insurance.Our long-term goal is to have the same API and feature set across GKE and Anthos platforms. We have extended Egress NAT policy in Anthos to provide NAT functionality based on K8s resources like namespaces and/or labels. This new Egress NAT policy on GKE Autopilot clusters provides source NAT controls to start. With this launch, we’re taking the initial step in achieving the first milestone on our roadmap.Cloud Composer 2, a Google managed workflow orchestration service built on Apache Airflow, uses GKE Autopilot under the hood. Cloud Composer 2 users also benefit from the introduction of Egress NAT policies to enable communication to various environments. “We are a big Cloud Composer user as part of our GCP journey. We have dealt with IP shortages by using non-RFC 1918 address space for our GKE clusters. With Egress NAT policy, we can now use IP masquerading with Cloud Composer 2. Workloads using non-RFC 1918 addressing with Cloud Composer 2 are now able to make API calls to our wider Equifax applications. We are excited about using Egress NAT policies with Cloud Composer 2 to enable more of our applications on GCP.”–Siddharth Shekhar, Site Reliability Engineer – Specialist at Equifax.Egress NAT policy is now generally available on GKE Autopilot clusters with DPv2 in versions 1.22.7-gke.1500+ or 1.23.4-gke.1600+. For configuration examples of Egress NAT policy, please refer to our how-to guide in the GKE documentation.GKE Autopilot with Dataplane V2 (DPv2)Have you been wanting to segregate your cluster workloads and understand when your Network Policies are enforced? GKE Autopilot now uses Dataplane V2 (DPv2) for container networking, a datapath integrated into Google infrastructure based on eBPF. With this advanced dataplane, you, as a GKE Autopilot user, can now take advantage of features like Network Policy and Network Policy Logging. With DPv2 support, GKE Autopilot clusters can now benefit from the advantages that GKE standard clusters currently have with DPv2:Security via Kubernetes Network Policy Scalability by removing iptables and kube-proxy implementationsOperational benefits with Network Policy LoggingConsistency with Anthos and GKE environments.Network Policy Logging enables security teams to audit logs and understand allowed or denied traffic flows based on existing Network Policies. It can be configured as an object on your GKE cluster and filtered per various parameters. The following is an example of a logged entry retrieved after an attempted access that was denied.code_block[StructValue([(u’code’, u”jsonPayload:rn connection:rn dest_ip: dest_port: 8080rn direction: ingressrn protocol: tcprn src_ip: src_port: 46988rn count: 2rn dest:rn namespace: defaultrn pod_name: hello-webrn pod_namespace: defaultrn disposition: denyrn node_name: gk3-autopilot-cluster-1-nap-4lime7d7-dba77360-8td5rn src:rn namespace: defaultrn pod_name: test-1rn pod_namespace: defaultrnlogName: projects/PROJECT/logs/policy-actionrnreceiveTimestamp: ‘2022-04-19T22:07:03.658959451Z’rnresource:rn labels:rn cluster_name: autopilot-cluster-1rn location: us-west1rn node_name: gk3-autopilot-cluster-1-nap-4lime7d7-dba77360-8td5rn project_id: PROJECTrn type: k8s_noderntimestamp: ‘2022-04-19T22:06:56.139253838Z'”), (u’language’, u”), (u’caption’, <wagtail.wagtailcore.rich_text.RichText object at 0x3eaca53a33d0>)])]Network Policy Logs are automatically uploaded to Cloud Logging and can also be retrieved via the Cloud Console Log Explorer. Network Policy metrics are also enabled with Dataplane v2 such that policy event metrics can be monitored even when Network Policy Logging is not enabled.GKE Autopilot uses DPv2 for all newly created clusters starting in GKE versions 1.22.7-gke.1500+ or 1.23.4-gke.1600+. For more information about Dataplane V2, check out our GKE Dataplane V2 docs. Getting started with GKE Autopilot with DPv2 is as easy as entering the following gcloud command:code_block[StructValue([(u’code’, u’gcloud container clusters create-auto CLUSTER_NAME \rn –region REGION \rn –project=PROJECT_ID’), (u’language’, u”), (u’caption’, <wagtail.wagtailcore.rich_text.RichText object at 0x3eaca53a31d0>)])]To learn more about GKE Autopilot, check out our Overview page.Related ArticleIntroducing GKE Autopilot: a revolution in managed KubernetesGKE Autopilot gives you a fully managed, hardened Kubernetes cluster out of the box, for true hands-free operations.Read Article
Quelle: Google Cloud Platform

Cloud TPU v4 records fastest training times on five MLPerf 2.0 benchmarks

Today, ML-driven innovation is fundamentally transforming computing, enabling entirely new classes of internet services. For example, recent state-of-the-art lage models such as PaLM and Chinchilla herald a coming paradigm shift where ML services will augment human creativity. All indications are that we are still in the early stages of what will be the next qualitative step function in computing. Realizing this transformation will require democratized and affordable access through cloud computing where the best of compute, networking, storage, and ML can be brought to bear seamlessly on ever larger-scale problem domains.  Today’s release of MLPerf™ 2.0 results from the MLCommons® Association highlights the public availability of the most powerful and efficient ML infrastructure anywhere. Google’s TPU v4 ML supercomputers set performance records on five benchmarks, with an average speedup of 1.42x over the next fastest non-Google submission, and 1.5x vs our MLPerf 1.0 submission. Even more compelling — four of these record runs were conducted on the publicly available Google Cloud ML hub that we announced at Google I/O. ML Hub runs out of our Oklahoma data center, which uses over 90% carbon-free energy. Let’s take a closer look at the results.Figure 1: TPUs demonstrated significant speedup in all five published benchmarks over the fastest non-Google submission (NVIDIA on-premises). Taller bars are better.Performance at scale…and in the public cloudOur 2.0 submissions1, all running on TensorFlow, demonstrated leading performance across all five benchmarks. We scaled two of our submissions to run on full TPU v4 Pods. Each Cloud TPU v4 Pod consists of 4096 chips connected together via an ultra-fast interconnect network with an industry-leading 6 terabits per second (Tbps) of bandwidth per host, enabling rapid training for the largest models.Hardware aside, these benchmark results were made possible in no small part by our work to improve the TPU software stack. Scalability and performance optimizations in the TPU compiler and runtime, including faster embedding lookups and improved model weight distribution across the TPU pod, enabled much of these improvements, and are now widely available to TPU users. For example, we made a number of performance improvements to the virtualization stack to fully utilize the compute power of both CPU hosts and TPU chips to achieve peak performance on image and recommendation models. These optimizations reflect lessons from Google’s cutting-edge internal ML use cases across Search, YouTube, and more. We are excited to bring the benefits of this work to all Google Cloud users as well.Figure 2: Our 2.0 submissions make use of advances in our compiler infrastructure to achieve a larger scale and better per-chip performance across the board than previously possible, averaging 1.5x speedup over our 1.0 submissions2Translating MLPerf wins to customer winsCloud TPU’s industry-leading performance at scale also translates to cost savings for customers. Based on our analysis summarized in Figure 3, Cloud TPUs on Google Cloud provide ~35-50% savings vs A100 on Microsoft Azure (see Figure 3). We employed the following methodology to calculate this result:2We compared the end-to-end times of the largest-scale MLPerf submissions, namely ResNet and BERT, from Google and NVIDIA. These submissions make use of a similar number of chips — upwards of 4000 TPU and GPU chips. Since performance does not scale linearly with chip count, we compared two submissions with roughly the same number of chips.To simplify the 4216-chip A100 comparison for ResNet vs our 4096-chip TPU submission, we made an assumption in favor of GPUs that 4096 A100 chips would deliver the same performance as 4216 chips.For pricing, we compared our publicly available Cloud TPU v4 on-demand prices ($3.22 per chip-hour) to Azure’s on-demand prices for A1003 ($4.1 per chip-hour). This once again favors the A100s since we assume zero virtualization overhead in moving from on-prem (NVIDIA’s results) to Azure Cloud.The savings are especially meaningful given that real-world models such as GPT-3 and PaLM are much larger than the BERT and ResNet models used in the MLPerf benchmark: PaLM is a 540 billion parameter model, while the BERT model used in the MLPerf benchmark has only 340 million parameters — a 1000x difference in scale. Based on our experience, the benefits of TPUs will grow significantly with scale and make the case all the more compelling for training on Cloud TPU v4.Figure 3: For the BERT model, using Cloud TPU v4 provides ~35% savings over A100, and ~50% savings for ResNet.4Have your cake and eat it too — a continued focus on sustainabilityPerformance at scale must take environmental concerns as a primary constraint and optimization target. The Cloud TPU v4 pods powering our MLPerf results run with 90% carbon-free energy and a Power Usage Efficiency of 1.10, meaning that less than 10% of the power delivered to the data center is lost through conversion, heat, or other sources of inefficiency. The TPU v4 chip delivers 3x the peak FLOPs per watt relative to the v3 generation. This combination of carbon-free energy and extraordinary power delivery and computation efficiency makes Cloud TPUs among the most efficient in the world.4Making the switch to Cloud TPUsThere has never been a better time for customers to adopt Cloud TPUs. Significant performance and cost savings at scale as well as a deep-rooted focus on sustainability are why customers such as Cohere, LG AI Research, Innersight Labs, and Allen Institute have made the switch. If you are ready to begin using Cloud TPUs for your workloads, please fill out this form. We are excited to partner with ML practitioners around the world to further accelerate the incredible rate of ML breakthroughs and innovation with Google Cloud’s TPU offerings.1 Innersight Labs.jpg2 Allen Institute.jpg3 Cohere.jpg4 LG AI Research.jpg1. MLPerf™ v2.0 Training Closed. Retrieved from 29 June 2022, results 2.0-2010, 2.0-2012, 2.0-2098, 2.0-2099, 2.0-2103, 2.0-2106, 2.0-2107, 2.0-2120. The MLPerf name and logo are trademarks of MLCommons Association in the United States and other countries. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use is strictly prohibited. See for more information.2. MLPerf v1.0 and v2.0 Training Closed. Retrieved from 29 June 2022, results 1.0-1088, 1.0-1090, 1.0-1092, 2.0-2010, 2.0-2012, 2.0-2120.3. ND96amsr A100 v4 Azure VMs, powered by eight 80 GB NVIDIA Ampere A100 GPUs (Azure’s flagship Deep Learning and Tightly Coupled HPC GPU offering with CentOS or Ubuntu Linux) is used for this benchmarking4. Cost to train is not an official MLPerf metric and is not verified by MLCommons Association. Azure performance is a favorable estimate as described in the text, not an MLPerf result. Computations are based on results from MLPerf v2.0 Training Closed. Retrieved from 29 June 2022, results 2.0-2012, 2.0-2106, 2.0-2107.Related ArticleGoogle demonstrates leading performance in latest MLPerf BenchmarksTPU v4 Pods will soon be available on Google Cloud, providing the most powerful publicly available computing platform for machine learnin…Read Article
Quelle: Google Cloud Platform